Glass - Back to the Future!

Presenting Author:
Sergey I. Gutnikov

article posted 22 March 2016

Sergey I. Gutnikov graduated Moscow State University in 2006 and received PhD (solid state chemistry) in 2009. As a Senior researcher head a researching group that develop new materials based on glass and basalt fibers. The researching group investigates follow problems:
• Determination of crystallization mechanism in mineral glasses and fibers
• Obtaining of alkali resistant glass fibers based on basalt with zirconium oxide addition
• Choice of raw for advanced glass and basalt fibers production
• Study of phase composition influence on mechanical and chemical properties of glass and mineral fibers
• Adjustment and starting of narrow fabrics weaving system Jakob Mueller NCE for glass and basalt fabrics production
• Development of surface treatment methods for production of glass and basalt fibers and fabrics with high properties (tensile strength, working temperature and chemical resistant increase)
• Preparation of glass reinforced composite material samples using vacuum infusion method
• Obtained results were used in creation of pilot basalt fiber production line, productivity is 150 t/year.

Methods to improve mechanical properties of basalt fiber

Sergey I. Gutnikov*, Konstantin L. Kuzmin, Evgeniya S. Zhukovskaya, Bogdan I. Lazoryak
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskie gory srt, 1-3, 11991, Moscow, Russia

The aim of this work was to obtain basaltic fibers with improved physical and mechanical properties by modifying their surface. The chemical composition of the fibers has been modified by the addition of alkali metal (Li2O and Na2O) compounds. Basaltic glass fibers with different alkali oxide contents showed significant improvement in tensile strength compared to the neat basalt continuous fibers. The tensile strength increased by 22%. Furthermore, with addition of Li2O and Na2O, Young’s modulus increased up to 67 and 57 GPa, respectively. The alkali oxide addition was found to reduce the forming temperatures and expand the fiber-forming temperature ranges. Crystallization of the obtained basaltic fibers was investigated. The IR spectra confirmed that introductions of the Li2O and Na2O caused shift of high-frequency band positions toward lower wave numbers in Si–O–Si stretching band. Also strengthening basaltic glass fibers by ion exchange was performed. The best results were obtained for samples containing 6 mol% Li2O and Na2O after 15-min chemical treatment in molten salt at 673 K, wherein the tensile strengths increased by 44% and 15%, respectively, compared to BCF. The various surface modifications of the constituent material was made using two methods: silane treatment and treatment with nano-hybrid coating with different content of nano-SiO2 (0.1-1 wt.%). Further, the nano-hybrid coating was successfully formed on the surface of the basalt. The incorporation of nano-SiO2 dramatically modified the fiber surface texture which increased the fiber surface roughness. The nanoparticles distributed on the basalt fiber surface evenly for the case where SiO2 concentration was low. The mechanical properties of the silanized basalt fibers got significant improvement. The tensile strength of silane treated fibers was found 23 % higher than the fibers after extraction in acetone (ABF), indicating that silane plays an important role in fiber strength.